To eliminate the heat that destroys qubits, physicists decided to completely replace wires with crystals.
Scientists have come up with a technology that will allow the control of millions of qubits in quantum computers. The research has been published in the journal Science Advances.
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Because of the fragile state of the system, physicists cannot simultaneously control more than a few hundred quantum particles (qubits), whereas complex calculations require millions. Researchers at the University of New South Wales claim to have found a way out by using a magnetic field. This discovery could prove to be the crucial step that humanity has been missing to create a full-scale quantum computer.
The laws of physics that make quantum computers so powerful pose a huge challenge to engineers at the same time. Subatomic particles, qubits, are in a state of superposition, which allows them to have two mutually exclusive properties simultaneously. Scientists use this feature to represent the ones and zeros that form the basis of the information particle, the bit. Cubits, on the other hand, can be both zeros and ones at the same time, which greatly speeds up the computation process.
Quantum computers “loaded” with qubits can quickly perform complex operations that would take classical supercomputers years to perform. The problem is that particles can lose their superposition when interacting with their environment. This makes controlling the qubits an incredibly difficult task, the most effective way being to keep the temperature as close to absolute zero as possible so that they remain stationary.
Typically, information in qubits was encrypted using microwave magnetic fields by passing a current through wires inside the system. To add more qubits, a quantum computer needs more wires, which generate heat and can easily destroy the superposition. The Australian scientists decided to get rid of the wires entirely and create magnetic fields using a quantum chip with a crystal prism called a dielectric resonator – it will be the bridle that holds the particles in the right position.
“That way, in principle, we could provide control fields of up to four million qubits,” said Dr. Jarrid Pla.
Another problem is that a quantum computer can provide many results, but emits a huge amount of destructive heat when even one of them is obtained. Scientists need to develop an algorithm that will manifest the right answer to a given problem while maintaining superposition.
“This is why a quantum computer can select tasks faster (e.g., factorizing large composite prime numbers, searching unsorted databases, etc. etc.), it’s also why it’s hard to develop such complex algorithms – although humans are getting better at this and many other things,” Dr. Pla noted in a comment to TechRadar.
Earlier it was written that engineers for the first time “crossed” a quantum computer with a fiber optic. This design will allow thousands of qubits to be controlled at room temperature. In addition, it is compatible with the fiber optic Internet.